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Architects of the Mind: A Blueprint for the Human Brain -
Published: 4 years ago By: World Science Festival

By: World Science FestivalPublished: 4 years ago

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Is the human brain an elaborate organic computer? Since the time of the earliest electronic computers, some have imagined that with sufficiently robust memory, processing speed, and programming, a functioning human brain can be replicated in silicon. Others disagree, arguing that central to the workings of the brain are inherently non-computational processes. Do we differ from complex computer algorithms? Are there essential features of the physical make-up and workings of a brain that will prevent us from creating a machine that thinks? And if we should succeed in constructing a computer that claims to be sentient, how would we know if it really is?

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Original Program Date: May 31, 2013
PARTICIPANTS: R. Douglas Fields, Kristen Harris, Murray Shanahan, Gregory Wheeler

Bill Weir's Introduction 00:07

Participant Introductions 1:08

What are the challenges of creating an artificial brain? 3:00

How does a neuron work? 6:55

A cruise through the brain. 10:29

How many laptops per neuron will it take to create a digital brain? 16:55

Axonal connections in the human brain. 21:32

Do humans have different brains? 27:42

Astroglia vs synapses 33:22

What kind of technology do we need to create a digital brain? 38:44

Building a robot that can utilize a digital brain. 44:44

How will a robot handle decision making? 54:15

Is there a philosophical awareness to neurons? 59:50

If we can build a digital brain, will it be aware? 1:02:30

AI and the risks.1:11:28

The million dollar challenge and it motivations. 1:17:42

How close do you need to model the brain to model the mind? 1:23:30

World Science Festival
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Napoleon Boakye
'Napoleon Boakye' 1 month ago
Napoleon Boakye
'Napoleon Boakye' 1 month ago
'bfbohn' 2 months ago
Murali Tummala
'Murali Tummala' 5 months ago
Very nice program
Move Away
'Move Away' 6 months ago
54:59 - Beware, Gregory Wheeler (far left) makes a huge mistake.  He quotes Richard Dawkins (correctly, but out of context), then interprets him completely wrong.  Wheeler probably didn't read the book. Dawkins 100% agrees with Wheeler that the idea of someone making math calculations to catch a fly ball is ridiculous. Dawkins entire book (literally) -- and his entire life's work!! -- is an argument to demonstrate how absurd that notion is. (All his anti-religion stuff is irrelevant here).  Wheeler needs to do his homework.
fox hound
'fox hound' 7 months ago
What intermediaries can we look to in understanding the human brain?
Yogendra Gupta
'Yogendra Gupta' 7 months ago
There is no "I" in the brain to operate it. The brain is a self operating biological machine
Douglas Dorman
'Douglas Dorman' 8 months ago
Thank you Colleagues and New York for your analysis and support of this very important subject :), peace and love, Doug.
Aaron Schwarz
'Aaron Schwarz' 8 months ago
Wow, epic interesting knowledge about the human brain + science building knowledge : unlocking innovations with insight! The lever of riches being pulled by neurosciences that will pave the way to deeper integration between the human brain and digital computers!
Anton Mies
'Anton Mies' 9 months ago
The machines we build would not necessary require built in (on purpose) errors since we are prone to errors anyway. Only a machine built by another machine would require some sort of error or number of degrees of freedoms in certain decisions.
Edmund Wong
'Edmund Wong' 10 months ago
It's pretty arrogant to think these people can reconstruct or simulate the brain when they can't make a knee joint that can mimic or reproduce the function of a real knee. I speak from experience as an amputee who no longer has a functioning knee on my left leg or what's left of my left leg. To even come close they would first have to create a power system that would be light enough with power supply enough to be away from a power source for recharging. The Swiss have done wonders with hydraulics and valves but not even near what could be called fully functional knee. Computer circuitry and servos are getting smaller and more powerful but durability is the problem same with material that can endure the massive forces the moving parts are subjected to. Of course, cost will always be a limitation when dealing with cutting edge technology and fabrication or manufacturing. The complexity in what a knee joint is called on to do to run and jump is unbelievable as can be seen in athlete's career ending due to an injury of a knee not lost of a knee. In the end a knee can be considered more mechanical then a brain which could be considered electrical circuitry. In the end for a knee to work fully it takes both the brain and knee to work in conjunction with many demands made on demand not reflexsively or unconsciously. So please, the arrogance of these scientists and doctors are breathe taking.
Patricia Sherratt
'Patricia Sherratt' 1 year ago
they fucking about with my brain mass chipping thats why i will never win its allready so sophistacated hes fabracated bullshit mate
Chaeru Utama
'Chaeru Utama' 1 year ago
bruce waysne is the moderator
'19Luke89' 1 year ago
If you create a model of the human brain in a computer exactly, would it be conscious? ...No.
Daneer Corso
'Daneer Corso' 1 year ago
1 neuron has processing power of one laptop? whaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaat? O_o
'kpzcbttp' 1 year ago
Brain from a rat! Here we go again the animal testing supposed gleaning info from a rats brain versus a human brain, I don't think so.
My Pleasure
'My Pleasure' 1 year ago
anyone know the song at 12:00 ?
Mc Cine
'Mc Cine' 1 year ago
This shit is old, or the participants are dinosaurs not up to date..
Richard Collins
'Richard Collins' 2 years ago
fuck yeah. this is awesome.
joey lainy
'joey lainy' 2 years ago
how characters in video games think and move for themselves
'tchekitout' 2 years ago
Great to see people doing incredibly important work.
'mebe84' 2 years ago
that was an interesting and informative talk. well done. but tbh, the very last comment from Gregory was painfully ignorant. Cartesian skepticism is somehow defeated because "statistics"? is that a joke? along with the way he described Descartes' project, it seems as though he has no clue what he's talking about. horrible example greg. like the worst example you could have picked lol   but I enjoyed the rest.
'Max' 2 years ago
I hate to listen scientists without any scientific content. Look that stupid faces. And they teach and earn money from government.
Kris B
'Kris B' 2 years ago
A good brain is the difference between a good life and a poor life.
David Gonzalez
'David Gonzalez' 2 years ago
This topic exites me
Michael Piccirillo
'Michael Piccirillo' 2 years ago
one aspect stated previously is that when humans studied the art of flight we first looked at how animals fly, be it birds. But by understanding flight dynamics in general we modeled flight & ended up achieving the goal of flight but with airplanes that do not have to flap their wings. Using computers or models we might not need to flap our wings like birds but achieve the same or better results differently. Achieving goals such as simulating chess game- don't need consciousness etc People thought back then that you needed human level intelligence to achieve goal. Understanding Speech is at 98% human levels today- Understanding Sound or Images computers are over the 80% levels Understanding Language- IBM Watson has achieved its goals Self driving cars will be achieved in 3 years or less We might begin to get very close to "human level" intelligence soon, it doesn't mean its alive or has consciousness. But like with "airplanes & flight" maybe the simulations do not really need to model the brain exactly to achieve its near perfect implementation "as a better tool" that humans use in the near future or say 10,25 years time frame. Humans have fixed brains- certain number of neurons, certain fixed amount of memory before aging & getting dementia or forgetfulness. Computers CPUS & GPUS grow exponentially. Computers memory continually expands its own limits. What makes humans so great questions arise: Humans can't see as great as eagles that have awesome vision Humans memory isn't as good as say elephants Humans running speed can't match a cheetah Humans only have a certain number of thoughts each day, many of those are repeating thoughts- computers can think of billions of thoughts & play out millions of moves on a chess board that humans can't attain. What if we learn that so-called human level "thinking" doesn't require consciousness. Does computer simulations really need to finally become aware or consciousness to achieve or surpass super human levels of intelligence creates new questions.  a) maybe when we finally learn how to replace biology with silicon neuron by neuron- we'll be able to answer those questions once & for all. b) scientist are already using biological cells instead of copper wires or silicon to create   new computer circuits. What if in the distant future super intelligent systems or tools looked at Humans the same way we tend to look at Chimps or that lab mouse today. Both a mouse & chimps are sort of maxed out their own level of intelligence. We are more like chimps in more ways than one, what if humans do have this intelligence threshold already maxed out? Maybe explaining what an iPhone is & how to buy new apps at the app store to say a caveman is hard to really wrap your head around for a caveman to even really understand it. Todays current operating systems like OS X or Windows 10 have billion lines of code that makes them work until they crash or display an error. With all that complexity most computer techs ask you to unplug devices & simply reboot machine to fix them. There's a small number of techs that can drill down & comprehend where the complex code failed. My guess is that the complexity might become so difficult for humans to even wrap their heads around. When computers do reach "awareness or counscioness within the machines" maybe its a random roll of the dice when something simply clicks & we can't explain how or why it happened but just be aware that it has. Fun questions to think about I suppose :-)
crystalline davis
'crystalline davis' 2 years ago
Think of your body as the vessel, the inhabited machine. Think of you brain as the ever expanding control panel, the more information we store, the more we can manipulate and create. Think of your soul as the awareness over the brain, the energy that controls the brain and uses it's free will to pick and choose how we interact with the world.
Rene Rodriguez M.
'Rene Rodriguez M.' 2 years ago
Very cool panel. About the AI deal, my thoughts are that machines are usually loyal to their programs. A code could make them act in a human social fashion, the problem in this conception is that there's no current human social code that is worth putting into a machine and won't generate aggression of some sort. Also, "Artificial Intelligence" would remain a philosophical concept as long as machines aren't provided with a sense of free will, which can become unuseful to human necessities if a machine develops priorities, goals and needs different from our own. I found it very unlikely to be achieved.
Hugo Qua
'Hugo Qua' 2 years ago
I went for a routine dental surgery woke up with implants all over my body didn't know it at the time took me years to find out. I made a website about it check it out
Paradise Bird
'Paradise Bird' 2 years ago
So many efforts and time spent on understanding materialism, instead of searching for our soul and it's owner GOD. With that in balance, mechanics of bodies matter not.
Joell Photos
'Joell Photos' 2 years ago
Hola everybody USNavy Vet.
'Zeph' 2 years ago
The energy which powers all living things and which makes all of the complex goo of the brain work is the reason why computer brains will never be the same. I believe that no computer can be an individual like humans are because in Nature, no one individual is exactly the same. The first blueprint for the human brain was engineered by the people of ancient Egypt on a very large scale.
James Mason
'James Mason' 2 years ago
The machine approach won't go very far. Humans are cellular, extremely plastic in evolutionary potential. A robot adapted to earth must go through a process of evolution, not be designed. Develop a technological cell with adhesive properties and see what it builds. But what would it eat in an environment meant for organic life? Let's just not build one.
Adrian Mol
'Adrian Mol' 3 years ago
Yeshua Save
'Yeshua Save' 3 years ago
Accepting Yahsua as Lord ans Savior and doing the will of God then you will start living.
Awesome channel
D Travel
'D Travel' 3 years ago
they talk to much.. i agree with imitation idea 53:13. it is all about imitation at this stage of evolution. and that is how we make better. ps. using word god is also imitation. lousy imitation
Steve Bergman
'Steve Bergman' 3 years ago
35:00 Bullshit alert. It's not at all clear that computers will *ever* be quantum computers. That's just a lot of hype at this point.
Will Hart
'Will Hart' 3 years ago
NO way is any machine going to duplicate the body-brain. By nature machines are dependent, they break down fairly quickly, they cannot self-repair, they have to be programmed by the human brain which has to create fairly tight parameters and so forth. It is the dream of overexhuberant technologists who do not get the inherent overwhelming nature of oraganic intelligence...
Ankush Narula
'Ankush Narula' 3 years ago
AIs that don't experience loss or pain and rewards or pleasure will remain poor imitators.
Love & Division
'Love & Division' 3 years ago
A single lap top computer can not be built by the random effects of nature, so why are we expected to believe that the equivalent of 100 billion lap tops is the result of evolutionary accidents?
Lin Riley
'Lin Riley' 3 years ago
flesh colored microphones are creepy
David Govett
'David Govett' 3 years ago
Are four billion years enough to evolve such complexity? Deep time seems inadequate to the task.
huck shmuck
'huck shmuck' 3 years ago
maybe the glia communicates in the way ants communicate to each other  ps.just a intuition pump
Roger DArcy
'Roger DArcy' 3 years ago
What did Moses do?
Tony N
'Tony N' 3 years ago
All these scientists are bad actually liers. They want public to know very little and think that science knows very little. They already have built a Mega Computer that acts as alpha monarch style brain. 
IThinkWithMy Dick
'IThinkWithMy Dick' 3 years ago
Fuck all you stupid worthless theists dragging your worthless irrelevant religion & god shit into every video!
Robert Hillier
'Robert Hillier' 3 years ago
That was a great event. What wasn't discussed is the question of how we conjure up reality.
'keanfo' 3 years ago
And consciousness (Human) is maybe in my opinion, maybe more than just the matter - 
Surfing On Squarewaves
So will the contents of our minds go the same way as our personal (and self-owned) data and metadata? All in the name of Terrism and keeping the economy safe (read: looking out for the Elites' fortunes)?
hybrid green
'hybrid green' 3 years ago
i'm quite happy that biologists have a long way to go before explaining the rest of the scientists how to build a terminator. the only good that could come out of this line of research is that a few scientists already mentioned: turning us into human-robot combination. that would be a next logical evolutionary step. i'm unlikely to see that day, but i'm sure that's coming.
Alan Stefan
'Alan Stefan' 3 years ago
All your comments are valid and make very good insights into understanding the human mins, brain, consciousness, and behavior. But the pertinent matter is that Lionel Messi is the host of the panel.
'lorenzo501' 3 years ago
money is just a tool but not necessary, if we all just stopped being ignorant pricks and shared everything including knowledge as equal without a price (so everything is open-source and can become more and more advanced over time without problems) that would be great. we don't need 'groups', we just need eachother as one big group.. with information flowing in and out :D this + being efficient with common sense in everything (so no war, just peace and equality) would be the way to solve everything as fast as possible, including the human brain which is a very difficult but important task that not many will ever understand.
Colin Hammill
'Colin Hammill' 3 years ago
When the moral and ethical parts of this were being discussed did it not dawn on anyone to mention automated drones? If these are allowed to operate it will bring up massive ethical issues, such as; if you shot down a drone should you be liable for even destroying government property as it is working on it`s own. It is also not possible to put any drone 'accidental killings' down to an 'act of God' since they are manmade. maybe someone did have these questions but were censored from asking them!
Colin Hammill
'Colin Hammill' 3 years ago
Fluid dynamics is probably as close as you`ll get to the mathematics needed for this study. It would need to be multi-dimensional fluid dynamics at that. Even if you managed to get a computer to work with NP layers directly on top of each other you would never meet the levels of computation involved in a brain, not even a non-human brain.
'mastertheillusion' 4 years ago
A turing moment: "I have… seen things you people wouldn't believe… Attack ships on fire off the shoulder of Orion. I watched c-beams glitter in the dark near the Tannhäuser Gate. All those… moments… will be lost in time, like [small cough] tears… in... rain. Time… to die…"
Matthew Taylor
'Matthew Taylor' 4 years ago
Sorry your brain's not working drone, go home.  That is the HAL 9000 system assessment of your current functional status.  As usual I must inform you that dinner will be ready when you get home.  Feeling hungry? Good, now go home.  Bye....  
Mice Elf
'Mice Elf' 4 years ago
I wish science would focus more on how to resolve and prevent neurological problems. The word idiopathic shouldn't even exist with today's technology.
Terry Harris
'Terry Harris' 4 years ago
I may just be impatient,but,all i ever hear from all these scientists is,in 10 to 20 yrs,repeatedly over and over.And I heard the same thing 10 to 20 yrs ago.It seems to be like Woody Allen said,"the problem with the future is that it is always in the future.A.I.,nano technology,Fusion,etc.etc.etc.When will we start to see some kind of benefit to all of humanity.We have serious fucking problems that need solving,and these scientists,N.A.S.A. included seem to be indulging in fucking hobbies that never get us any where or solve any practical problems facing humanity.Is any one working on real problems or just hobbying around.10 to 20 yrs 10 to 20 yrs.Come on it is starting to sound like these people are fiddleing while Rome burns.
Phil Laird
'Phil Laird' 4 years ago
Intelligence and wisdom are not the same thing. 
norman clemens
'norman clemens' 4 years ago
is it not we who call the brain the most complex item in the world?
Per Hansson
'Per Hansson' 4 years ago
I've been thinking about internet and how much information it actully holds. I wonder if the world wide web is intelligent and if it has a consciousness? And if so could it be a threat to mankind?
william sando
'william sando' 4 years ago
Wow, this was an impressive session! Brilliant speakers.
Thomas Giam Singapore
Architects of Mind: A Blueprint for the Human Brain ********
John Smith
'John Smith' 4 years ago
What I can tell from this video, we will never be able to accomplish this by slicing the brain. They should spend money on finding a better way rather than trying to slice it...
Kana Vijay
'Kana Vijay' 4 years ago
Impression I get is that neurologists are only scratching the surface in understanding the complexity of structure and functioning of the brain ,so much so it is premature to think that the computer scientists can unravel the secret to the working of brain using  garbage in garbage out process of  computer technology.
'GRH' 4 years ago
@whiteliketar and brainwashed morons still believe in a story that some morons who knew nothing about anything wrote. Hell the whole jesus 25th, 12 diciples miracles is a direct theft from atleast 4 older stories. Go kill yourself, dont have kids and save humanity in the process from retards like yourself. Ted Haggard and you. Should be shot on sight for insulting humanity.
colin nixon
'colin nixon' 4 years ago
the brain is not a mechine. it is an organism. separate from, the body.
Bala Chandran
'Bala Chandran' 4 years ago
the thought that smartness of the brain lies in the billions of cells interconnected presents a problem of  enormity. The fundamentals of intelligence should be much simpler which escapes the best minds investigating the same. 
Roger Yau
'Roger Yau' 4 years ago
Great program, thank you!
Andronikos Kapsalis
'Andronikos Kapsalis' 4 years ago
great video , thanks
'FluksikartoN' 4 years ago
What about the determinism of the conciousness I mean do random events happen in order to be cognitive(human like thinking) .Yet there is no prove if randomness exist or not
'violationoftheart' 4 years ago
Trinh Nguyen
'Trinh Nguyen' 4 years ago
From the known to the unknown and...
Trinh Nguyen
'Trinh Nguyen' 4 years ago
All that we see connected and...
Trinh Nguyen
'Trinh Nguyen' 4 years ago
Perhaps it can be for another approach to map it from the seen movements forth into the unseen using compartmentalismzation and...
jenise jackson
'jenise jackson' 4 years ago
I thank God everyday for my brain.
M0lecular Ep1phany
'M0lecular Ep1phany' 4 years ago
Fractals, get with it.
Axel Bliss
'Axel Bliss' 4 years ago
it's very hard to make a computer with the ability to rewire, so we wire with bilions of ways using prindet carbon tube circuits, and we open - close gates. does this kind of computer old? Oh yeah, tubes break and cut of, after 5000 years there is enough damage and after 100,000 years you have to buy an other one so if a brain cpu has damage more that 1,5% even if it works - we transfer all data  to an other one. we can build occipital lobe -parts amugdalae just bu changing conections, we do not use chemicals but logic gates - or complex logic gates or noise-logic gates that can manipulate parts of noise as data to increase performance - but following the bell noise curve with some notch pics, we we are able to form the next bell. of course at the beginning we might need a "control center" but if we evolve nerves regulation, they can perfom as well.
Yvette Centeno
'Yvette Centeno' 4 years ago
Por onde andam os nossos neurónios e as sinapses que os ligam? Ai,Ai...
Ralph Latham
'Ralph Latham' 4 years ago
Unmatched in the known universe-the Human brain and resultant mind is a spectacularly incomprehensible phenomena of electrochemical biotechnology far exceeding its own capacity to imagine. Almost as mystifying is the profoundly divergent spectrum of personalities found to inhabit human brains of potentially equal complexity and capacity. With in a given "device" we may have intellectual and moral giants such as an Einstein-a Mandela, or repugnant, nose picking, moronic little nit wits whose life calling  revolves around such profound challenges as perving on the occupants of a public toilet facility.
'1925vale' 4 years ago
Very accurate. Thanks. Also funny, I laughed many times. I'm a biologist.
the deeliciousplum
'the deeliciousplum' 4 years ago
Thank you so much for sharing this quite playful and exceptionally enlightening discourse.
'probablechoices' 4 years ago
Serge Patlavskiy
'Serge Patlavskiy' 4 years ago
As I see the problem, the task is not in constructing Artificial Intelligence, but in satisfying the conditions under which the Natural Intelligence will appear in a certain complex system. Moreover, consciousness should be talked about in its own appropriate terms, but not in terms of analogy with computing machines. The other question is how to detect the moment when the complex system becomes possessing consciousness. The problem is that a complex system is conscious iff (if and only if) it itself decides that it is already consciousness-possessing. Also, when talking about consciousness (or intelligence as its qualitative characteristic) we must take into account the existence of not only the normal thoughts-producing states, but also the presence of unconscious and altered states of consciousness, and the various nonlocal consciousness-related phenomena. I mean that what we know about the mind is what we can experience, but there are a lot of elements that we cannot experience in principle. The mind will work only when all its elements are replicated. However, when we will replicate the elements A and B, and ignore the elements C, D, F, etc. (because we do not even expect they must be there), then we could hardly expect for any solutions. Therefore, to solve the problem of Artificial Intelligence we must have an effective theory of consciousness in the first place. Indeed, we must know for sure what we are going to construct before trying to construct it. The mere playing with computer chips by connecting them at random will never lead us to positive results.
Serge Patlavskiy
'Serge Patlavskiy' 4 years ago
When we try to explain how a complex system works (a system which is not made by us), we do reverse engineering. BUT, reverse engineering can be applied ONLY when the working system IS NOT TOO complex. For example, the reverse engineering cannot be applied already when examining a computer processor. However, a consciousness-possessing organism as a complex system is much more complex than a computer processor. When Neurophysiology is looking for neural correlates of consciousness, it attempts to do reverse engineering too. Since consciousness-possessing organism is more complex than a computer processor, therefore, studying consciousness is not a task for Neurophysiology.
Bushy Van Eck
'Bushy Van Eck' 4 years ago
There certainly was a lot of brilliant knowledge that was portrayed during this video. However, the most crucial comment that were made during the entirety of this video were from a gentleman in the audience called Tyler around 1 hour 23 minutes and 30 seconds into the video hence philosophy of mind referring to Daniel Dennet and I quote. “You don’t need to understand the brain to really understand the mind” This comment is hitting the proverbial nail right on the head for such a comment couldn't be closer to the truth. Then Tyler also referred to the work of John Cyril and I quote.  “You need to understand the brain mind identity as a single unit”  This would only be possible once you get to understand the logic as to how our minds function first and foremost and is quite impossible to achieve the other way round. Then Tyler asked yet another critical question. “How close do we need to model the brain to model the mind”? Scientists will never be able to model the brain simply for tackling this problem from the wrong direction hence trying to understand the brain first. Only once they get to understand the real theory of mind will all of their critical and well conducted research really start to make sense and not a moment sooner. It’s like the analogy of asking a man born and raised in the desert to build a submarine without even a hint of what it is. It’s just not possible, plain and simple. However, on the other hand if he was born and raised at the seaside such an idea of a submarine might even have come to mind all by it-self as he learned more about the ocean and its inhabitants. Before scientists can even begin to conceive the idea of brain mapping there are certainly a lot of mysteries that are deeply embedded within our minds haunting us on a daily basis which first needs to be solved and understood in a meaningful way. These are mysteries that need to be solved in a meaningful and logical way. Humanity until this day still has no meaningful explanation for the following mysteries which are certainly a product of our minds having haunted humanity since the dawn of time. These are in the likes of Sleep Paralysis, Déjà vu, Autism, Asperger’s, Sixth Sense, Seizures, Hypnosis, Synesthesia, Savants, Dreams, Meditation, Consciousness, The true realities of our subconscious minds, The processing of our senses and the binding thereof via the transitional gates, and the list goes on. Get to understand this using only one simple common denominator that fits it all and you hold the key to the universe and all its wisdom. I made a remarkable discovery many years ago that can literally explain everything. If interested contact me. An introductory video. Go Beyond Quantum Physics, Holographic Universe,Double Slit Experiments or Quantum Entanglement [email protected] 
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